Jüdischer Widerstand im Nationalsozialismus (German Edition)

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Contents

  1. Additional information
  2. 15. Jewish Organizations
  3. The Passion of Max von Oppenheim - Jewish Organizations - Open Book Publishers
  4. 'Never Again': Memorials of the Holocaust

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15. Jewish Organizations

You may send this item to up to five recipients. The name field is required. Please enter your name. The E-mail message field is required. Please enter the message. Please verify that you are not a robot. One of the 50, killed here was Anne Frank, a Jewish girl who gained international fame posthumously after her diary was published. Buchenwald near the Thuringian town of Weimar was one of the largest concentration camps in Germany. From to April , the National Socialists deported about , people from all over Europe here and murdered 64, of them.

Nuremberg hosted the biggest Nazi party propaganda rallies from until the start of the Second World War. Today, the unfinished Congress Hall building serves as a documentation center and a museum.


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The Bendlerblock building in Berlin was the headquarters of a military resistance group. On July 20, , a group of Wehrmacht officers around Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg carried out an assassination attempt on Adolf Hitler that failed. The leaders of the conspiracy were summarily shot the same night in the courtyard of the Bendlerblock, which is today the German Resistance Memorial Center.

From people with physical and mental disabilities were killed at a psychiatric hospital in Hadamar in Hesse. Declared "undesirables" by the Nazis, some 15, people were murdered here by asphyxiation with carbon monoxide or by being injected with lethal drug overdoses. Across Germany some 70, were killed as part of the Nazi euthanasia program. Today Hadamar is a memorial to those victims. Architect Peter Eisenman created a field with 2, concrete slabs. An attached underground "Place of Information" holds the names of all known Jewish Holocaust victims.

IV. Oppenheim’s Relation to the National Socialist Regime in Context

Not too far from the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe, another concrete memorial honors the thousands of homosexuals persecuted by the Nazis between and The four-meter high monument, which has a window showing alternately a film of two men or two women kissing, was inaugurated in Berlin's Tiergarten on May 27, Opposite the Reichstag parliament building in Berlin, a park inaugurated in serves as a memorial to the , Sinti and Roma people killed by the Nazi regime.

Around a memorial pool the poem "Auschwitz" by Roma poet Santino Spinelli is written in English, Germany and Romani: "gaunt face, dead eyes, cold lips, quiet, a broken heart, out of breath, without words, no tears. It cannot be disputed that many Germans supported the regime until the end of the war. But beneath the surface of German society there were also currents of resistance, if not always consciously political.


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The German historian Detlev Peukert , who pioneered the study of German society during the Nazi era, called this phenomenon "everyday resistance. Peukert and other writers have shown that the most persistent sources of dissatisfaction in Nazi Germany were the state of the economy and anger at the corruption of Nazi Party officials — although these rarely affected the personal popularity of Hitler himself.

The Nazi regime is frequently credited with "curing unemployment," but this was done mainly by conscription and rearmament — the civilian economy remained weak throughout the Nazi period. Although prices were fixed by law, wages remained low and there were acute shortages, particularly once the war started.

To this after was added the acute misery caused by Allied air attacks on German cities. The result was "deep dissatisfaction among the population of all parts of the country, caused by failings in the economy, government intrusions into private life, disruption of accepted tradition and custom, and police-state controls. Otto and Elise Hampel protested the regime by leaving postcards urging resistance both passive and forceful against the regime around Berlin.

It took two years before they were caught, convicted and then put to death. Opposition based on this widespread dissatisfaction usually took "passive" forms — absenteeism, malingering, spreading rumours, trading on the black market, hoarding, avoiding various forms of state service such as donations to Nazi causes. But sometimes it took more active forms, such as warning people about to be arrested, hiding them or helping them to escape, or turning a blind eye to oppositionist activities.

Among the industrial working class, where the underground SPD and KPD networks were always active, there were frequent if short-lived strikes. These were generally tolerated, at least before the outbreak of war, provided the demands of the strikers were purely economic and not political. Another form of resistance was assisting the persecuted German Jews. By mid the deportation of German and Austrian Jews to the extermination camps in occupied Poland was well under way. It is argued by some writers that the great majority of Germans were indifferent to the fate of the Jews, and a substantial proportion actively supported the Nazi programme of extermination.

This was most pronounced in Berlin, where the Gestapo and SS were headquartered, but also where thousands of non-Jewish Berliners, some with powerful connections, risked hiding their Jewish neighbors. Aristocrats such as Maria von Maltzan and Marie Therese von Hammerstein obtained papers for Jews and helped many to escape from Germany.

The Passion of Max von Oppenheim - Jewish Organizations - Open Book Publishers

In Wieblingen in Baden, Elisabeth von Thadden , a private girls' school principal, disregarded official edicts and continued to enroll Jewish girls at her school until May when the school was nationalised and she was dismissed she was executed in , following the Frau Solf Tea Party. At the Foreign Office, Canaris conspired to send a number of Jews to Switzerland under various pretexts. It is estimated that 2, Jews were hidden in Berlin until the end of the war. Martin Gilbert has documented numerous cases of Germans and Austrians, including officials and Army officers, who saved the lives of Jews.

The Rosenstrasse protest of February was sparked by the arrest and threatened deportation to death camps of 1, Jewish men married to non-Jewish women. Before these men could be deported, their wives and other relatives rallied outside the building in Rosenstrasse where the men were held. About 6, people, mostly women, rallied in shifts in the winter cold for over a week. Eventually Himmler, worried about the effect on civilian morale, gave in and allowed the arrested men to be released.

Some who had already been deported and were on their way to Auschwitz were brought back. There was no retaliation against the protesters, and most of the Jewish men survived. Nazism had a powerful appeal to German youth, particularly middle-class youth, and German universities were strongholds of Nazism even before Hitler came to power.

'Never Again': Memorials of the Holocaust

The Hitler Youth sought to mobilise all young Germans behind the regime, and apart from stubborn resistance in some rural Catholic areas, was generally successful in the first period of Nazi rule. After about , however, persistent alienation among some sections of German youth began to appear. This rarely took the form of overt political opposition — the White Rose group was a striking exception, but was striking mainly for its uniqueness.

Much more common was what would now be called "dropping out" — a passive refusal to take part in official youth culture and a search for alternatives. Although none of the unofficial youth groups amounted to a serious threat to the Nazi regime, and although they provided no aid or comfort to those groups within the German elite who were actively plotting against Hitler, they do serve to show that there were currents of opposition at other levels of German society.

Examples were the so-called Edelweisspiraten "Edelweiss Pirates" , a loose network of working-class youth groups in a number of cities, who held unauthorised meetings and engaged in street fights with the Hitler Youth; the Meuten group in Leipzig , a more politicised group with links to the KPD underground, which had more than a thousand members in the late s; and, most notably, the Swingjugend , middle-class youth who met in secret clubs in Berlin and most other large cities to listen to swing , jazz and other music deemed "degenerate" by the Nazi authorities.

This movement, which involved distinctive forms of dress and gradually become more consciously political, became so popular that it provoked a crackdown: in Himmler ordered the arrest of Swing activists and had some sent to concentration camps. In October , as the American and British armies approached the western borders of Germany, there was a serious outbreak of disorder in the bomb-ravaged city of Cologne , which had been largely evacuated.

The Edelweisspiraten linked up with gangs of deserters, escaped prisoners and foreign workers, and the underground KPD network, to engage in looting and sabotage, and the assassination of Gestapo and Nazi Party officials. Explosives were stolen with the objective of blowing up the Gestapo headquarters. Himmler, fearing the resistance would spread to other cities as the Allied armies advanced into Germany, ordered a savage crackdown, and for days gunbattles raged in the ruined streets of Cologne. The various groups of German resistance against the Nazi government had different attitudes to the Allies.

The most visible resistance group of the July 20 plot wasn't interested in dealing with all the Allies, and pressed demands against such Allied countries as Poland and the Soviet Union; some of its members were involved in atrocities against people in these countries. In particular the July 20th plotters demanded in their proposals to occupy Poland and annex its territory, while occupying the rest of East Europe and continuing war with the Soviet Union.

source link The token representative of the July 20 Group, Claus von Stauffenberg, was known for his support towards German colonization of Poland as well as racist remarks regarding Polish Jews. Many postwar German commentators blamed the Allies for having isolated the resistance with their demand of unconditional surrender, while ignoring that the resistance offered unrealistic demands towards the Allies. While English historians too have criticized the unconditional surrender, most of them agree that it had no real impact on the final outcome of the war.

While German popular memory and public discourse portrays the resistance as isolated due to demand of unconditional surrender, in reality its isolation was due to unrealistic expectations of what the Allies would accept; while German commentators write that the resistance tried "to save that which remained to be saved", they omit the fact that it included a significant portion of territories conquered by Nazi Germany from its neighbours. The Allied doctrine of unconditional surrender meant that " President Roosevelt a telegraph message from Bern, warning him of the consequences that the knowledge of the Morgenthau plan had had on German resistance; by showing them that the enemy planned the enslavement of Germany it had welded together ordinary Germans and the regime; the Germans continue to fight because they are convinced that defeat will bring nothing but oppression and exploitation.