Os Buddenbrook – Declínio de Uma Família (Portuguese Edition)
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BARRACLOUGH, Geoffrey - Introdução a história contemporânea
Forgot account? Not Now. Visitor Posts. Mao invited U. Nixon —; served —74; see entry to visit China in This meeting in Beijing exemplified Mao's standing as a world statesman and his achievement in securing America's recognition of communist China as a world power.
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Mao Zedong, also spelled Mao Tse-tung, was born on December 26, , into a Chinese homeland that appeared to be falling apart. The fading Qin dynasty was both hated and feared, but it could not contain the spiraling social and economic unrest. Foreign powers consumed most of China's natural resources in their centralized state, and the country seemed ripe for change.
Mao was the son of a peasant who had become a wealthy farmer in Hunan Province. He received a traditional education in the classics at a primary school in the village of Shaoshan. Forced by his father to work in the fields, Mao ran away from the family farm at the age of thirteen to continue his education in the city of Changsha. There, he was introduced to Western ideas and became involved in the revolution against the Manchu Dynasty. He was still a student when the revolution of —12 overthrew the Manchu government and made China a republic.
At the age of eighteen, Mao joined the revolutionary army as a common soldier. After resuming his education in Changsha, Mao became involved in student politics and founded the New People's Study Society. The society encouraged students to participate in public affairs. Many of its early members later became prominent members of the Chinese Communist Party. After graduating from the Changsha teachers' training college in , Mao went to Peking Beijing University and in took a leading part in the May Fourth Movement, which involved student protests against the Paris Peace Conference's decision to hand over German gains in Shandong Province, formerly Chinese, to Japan.
Mao's involvement in this movement pushed him away from Western liberalism to Marxism. He became attracted to the ideas of communism,. Together, Mao Zedong and Yang Kaihui had three children.
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Mao concentrated on political work among the peasants of his native province and advocated a rural revolution. Chiang Kai-shek —; see entry succeeded Sun when Sun died in Chiang conducted a bloody purge of the Chinese communists, and they were driven from the cities.
Mao escaped the uprising and established a base in the southern province of Kiangsi. His wife, Yang Kaihui, was executed by the Kuomintang in Changsha in While in Kiangsi, Mao put into practice his theory of a peasant-based revolution. With the help of General Zhu De , he joined military doctrine to his political thinking to create the guerrilla tactics of the "people's war" and build the Red Army.
His activities were so successful that in he was able to declare the founding of the new Chinese Soviet Republic in Kiangsi, with himself as the first chairman.
Chiang's Nationalist forces gradually encircled the communist forces and were about to take control in In order to escape, Mao led his Red Army on a year-long, 6,mile 9,kilometer march to reach Shaanxi in northwest China and set up a new base. The Long March, as it was called, began with about 90, people but ended with only about 8, survivors on the dangerous trek.
The survivors emerged as a tightly knit band under the leadership of Mao. For a brief time in , the Nationalists renewed their alliance with the communists in order to ward off the increasing threat of Japanese invaders. The ensuing war sapped the Nationalist government's strength, while the Communist Party's political and military power was restored. By , the communists controlled areas populated by nearly one hundred million Chinese.https://hinemevoja.cf
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Mao took his first trip abroad in December Sino means Chinese. The treaty pledged the two countries to come to each other's defense in case of attack. It also included extensive Soviet financial and military aid. In , the Cold War —91 in Europe had become a war of position. The Cold War was fought over ideologies—communism versus democracy.
It was a war of mutual fear and distrust primarily between the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union.
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The European continent. In Asia, the situation was much more fluid and dynamic. It was a war of maneuver. The Soviet Union was aware that communist success in China would be a strategic shift of major proportions. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin —; see entry was eager to secure a firm alliance for the Soviet Union and to ensure China did not ally with the United States. The Sino-Soviet alliance was a victory for socialism in the world. After signing the treaty, Mao retired to a largely ceremonial role in China as chairman of both the Communist Party and the People's Republic.
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Day-to-day administration was left to party bureaucrats, who eventually fell under the influence of technical and military advisors from the Soviet Union. It was an attempt to break with the Russian model of communism. Mao proposed to decentralize the economy by establishing independent local communes, while at the same time hoping to renew revolutionary vigor. It was a monumental failure with disastrous results.
By , over twenty million people had died, mostly of starvation, and Mao was forced to retire as chief of state. He was, however, able to retain his title of chairman of the Communist Party and his control of the country. By the s, disputes between China and the Soviet Union had grown into a struggle for leadership of the communist world.
Mao considered himself to be the true interpreter of the principles of communism. The Sino-Soviet split widened when Mao ordered nuclear research that led to Chinese nuclear weapons testing. The final break came after the failure of the Great Leap Forward. The Soviet Union cut off all aid. In a weakened position, Mao fought back by instituting the Cultural Revolution. It was a mass mobilization of urban Chinese youth that took place from through Mao initiated the movement in order to prevent further development of a Soviet-style communism.
Schools were closed, and students were presented with copies of the "Quotations of Chairman Mao. Many people died in the ensuing purges, including scores of senior leaders who had been colleagues of Mao for more than three decades. The cult of Mao was one of the results of the Cultural Revolution in China. His book of quotations was given almost scriptural authority by the masses. Young and old learned his slogans and studied his writings. Mao also wrote poetry.
Giant portraits of Mao were displayed on billboards all around China. His face became familiar throughout the world. Mao would later argue that the creation of the personality cult had been necessary to counter entrenched party interests. He wanted to keep a radical edge to the Chinese communist movement and not let it get too conservative and bureaucratic.
Mao thought too many communist leaders in China were getting too comfortable in their long-held positions and letting the communist movement drift away from his hard-core philosophy. He did not want Chinese communists to become too friendly with noncommunists elsewhere. By the early s, illness plagued Mao, and the running of the country was left largely to his third wife.